Authors: Thomas Denk, Friðgeir Grímsson, Reinhard Zetter, Leifur A. Símonarson

This chapter provides morphological descriptions including remarks on nomenclatural problems for the macrofossil (M) and palynological (P) record from Iceland. The systematic section starts with Bryophyta (mosses), Lycopodiophyta (clubmosses and spikemosses), and Pteridophyta (horsetails and true ferns), followed by Gnetophyta, Ginkgophyta, Pinophyta (conifers), and Magnoliophyta (flowering plants). Families and genera appear in alphabetical order. Incertae sedis are listed at the end of each large taxonomic group. For each taxon described, stratigraphic and geographic occurrences are provided. Remarks regarding systematic affinities to coeval and extant taxa are added as well. Most taxa described here are illustrated in the plates accompanying Chaps. 4–11. Macrofossils are stored in the Swedish Museum of Natural History (S), the Icelandic Institute (Museum) of Natural History (IMNH), and the Geological Museum, Copenhagen (GM). Pollen samples are kept at the Department of Palaeobotany, University of Vienna. A table summarizing all (morpho)taxa recorded from Iceland with their stratigraphic ranges is provided at the end of Chap. 12 (Appendix 12.1).